Posts Tagged reading milestones

Assessing Accuracy and Fluency – Helping a Child Grow in Early Reading Skills

Posted in 2nd grade phonics, basic phonics rules, Five Big Ideas for Reading, Homeschool Reading Curriculum, phonic, phonics curriculum, Phonics Help for Parents, phonics lesson plans, Phonics vs Look/Say, teaching phonics, Uncategorized | Comments Off on Assessing Accuracy and Fluency – Helping a Child Grow in Early Reading Skills

 

There are FIVE BIG IDEAS involved in learning to read.

These FIVE BIG IDEAS are:
 
Phonemic Awareness
Alphabetic Principle
Accuracy/Fluency 
Vocabulary
Comprehension.

This Article on Phonics will discuss the third of THE BIG FIVE – Accuracy and Fluency. 

ACCURACY AND FLUENCY IN READING are vital skills for our children to possess. 

The folks at Candy 4WAY Phonics recognize that a reading program must include every essential step to achieve those crucial abilities. 

In order for our children to survive in this fast-paced, high-tech society, they must be able to look at a page of text and easily read all the words printed, completely understand all the material presented, accurately draw conclusions from all the facts given, and comprehensively make inferences from all the details specified. 

An accurate and fluent reader should have the ability to read selected text accurately, smoothly, effortlessly, and with appropriate expression and meaning.

The goal of attaining accuracy and fluency in reading is:  to learn to read through the words on a page easily and smoothly in order to increase the likelihood of understanding the meaning of the words.  

The National Reading Panel (Berninger et al., 2006) found that the following sequence of steps are necessary to lead students into fluency and onto comprehension:

Step 1) Phonemic Awareness 
Step 2) Phonics 
Step 3) Fluency 
Step 4) Vocabulary 
Step 5) Comprehension

However, there is a difference between assessing a student’s accuracy and fluency in reading and improving a student’s accuracy and fluency in reading.  Many teachers, for example, believe that practicing repetitive reading passages does both. 

For example, many teachers believe that having a child practice repetitive reading on the same selected text over and over and over again will help a child to read more fluently.  In turn, after the child has practiced a particular reading passage, teachers record the student’s rate of speed and use that rate assessment to determine the child’s reading fluency. 

In reality, though, having a child repeat the same text over and over again in order to gain speed:
a) does not assess that student’s overall reading accuracy
b) does not assess that student’s overall reading fluency
c) does not improve that student’s overall reading accuracy
d) does not improve that student’s overall reading fluency

 

What’s do I mean when I say “overall” accuracy and fluency in reading? 

Let’s take a child, for instance, who has been taught to read using the look-and-say reading approach.  If his teacher gives him the words:  baseball, hockey, run, game, and win, and asks him to read those words over and over and over again,  he will, indeed, be able to read those words faster and faster with less and less effort and more and more smoothly.

However, tomorrow when that child encounters the words: sports, athletics, sprint, competition, and  succeed, unless he has learned to sound out words from left to right, he won’t have a clue what those words are, and he will not be able to read them smoothly and effortlessly.

Reading a selected text over and over again will enable a child to learn phrasing, to follow punctuation marks in order to know when to pause and when to stop, and to gain a great knowledge of what a complete sentence “sounds like.” However, there is so much more needed in order for a child to attain accuracy and fluency in his reading.  There are at least four more skills necessary in order to attain strong accuracy and fluency in reading. 

First, a child must have the skills to approach words he has never seen before and to read those new words correctly

Second, the child must be given the opportunity to read a wide variety of printed forms on a regular basis. 

Third, the child must be exposed to greater and greater numbers of complex words and phrases.  

Fourth, the child must be given opportunities to read aloud selections in order to defend a thought or opinion he may have about that selection during a discussion. 

Most reading assessments for accuracy and fluency are performed on a weekly basis using material at the child’s grade level.  However, if we were to be more than generous in assessing a child’s ability to read accurately and fluently, we could take both a third grade look/n/say reading student and a third grade phonics-first reading student and assess their reading accuracy and fluency using reading material they each studied two previous school years ago (in the first grade).

If we did that, though,  we would soon see that there is a stark difference in the number of complex connective words and phrases contained in the sentences that each of these two types of students read during their first grade school year.

Let’s take a look at this sharp disparity between the words found in a first grade look/n/say story reader and the words found in a first grade phonics-first story reader by viewing text selections taken from both. Upon close examination, it becomes obvious that the measure of accuracy and fluency for a look/n/say reader is far behind the measure of accuracy and fluency for a phonics-first reader.

 

FIRST, here is the type of first-grade text that a well-trained look/n/say reader at the end of his third grade year should easily be able to read with accuracy, smoothness, and little effort.  The following paragraphs were taken from a first grade look/n/say story reader:

“Morris the Moose wanted candy.  He went to the wrong store. The man in the store said, “We don’t sell candy. Can’t you read?”

Then he showed Morris the candy store.  The man in the candy store said, “What would you like?”

Morris looked at the candy.  He liked the gumdrops.  He said, “Give me some of those.”

The man said, “They are one for a penny.  How much money do you have?”

Morris looked.  He had six pennies.  “I have four pennies,” he said.

The man laughed. “You have six!  Can’t you count?  Don’t you go to school?”

Morris asked, “What is school?”

 

SECOND, here is the type of first-grade text that a well-trained phonics-first reader at the end of his third grade year should easily be able to read with accuracy, smoothness, and little effort.  The following paragraphs were taken from a first grade phonics-first story reader:

“Little Sammy Saver trusted in the wise saying of:  A Penny Saved is a Penny Earned.

At the first of each week, Sammy Saver collected one hundred pennies. He collected those pennies as payment for jobs he did. Sammy thought that most of the pennies he got each week should be earned pennies.

Sammy earned his pennies by searching for jobs to do all year long. In the summertime, Sammy rose early in the morning, went outdoors, and grew his own vegetable garden. When his vegetables were large and ripe enough to eat, Sammy sold them at a vegetable stand that he set up on his front lawn. 

Anxious to do more jobs, Sammy often walked his neighbor’s pet poodle. For the elderly, he mowed their lawns, raked their leaves, did their shopping, and cleaned out their garages. He joined with one other ambitious boy to wash cars.”

 

As we return to the goal of attaining accuracy and fluency in reading, which is:  to learn to read through the words on a page easily and smoothly in order to increase the likelihood of understanding the meaning of the words, it’s important to realize that when a student reaches fourth grade and beyond, he has a grave need to be able to: a) read every word on every page, b) understand the basic facts presented in each paragraph, and c) draw inferences from the conclusions he reaches.   

When children are able to sound out words, as are children trained to read using a systematic phonics reading method, their measure of accuracy and fluency will carry them through elementary school textbooks, junior high school textbooks, high school textbooks, and college level textbooks. 

This is why the people at Candy 4WAY Phonics  offer a COMPLETE Systematic 4Way Phonics Program at the affordable price of just $9.97.  We want children to be able to read every page on every page, accurately comprehend meaning from every sentence, and decisively draw conclusions from every paragraph.

After all, isn’t that why accuracy and fluency in reading are such vital skills for our children to possess? 

Sincerely, Carol Kay, President

Candy 4WAY Phonics 

Alphabetic Principles — Helping a Child Grow in Early Reading Skills

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There are FIVE BIG IDEAS involved in learning to read.
 
These FIVE BIG IDEAS are:
 
Phonemic Awareness
Alphabetic Principle
Accuracy/Fluency with text
Vocabulary
Comprehension.

This Article on Phonics will discuss the second of THE BIG FIVE – Alphabetic Principle.

 

ALPHABETIC PRINCIPLE

Alphabetic Principle is the understanding that letters and combinations of letters are the symbols used to represent the speech sounds; and that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters, symbols, and spoken words.
 
Phonemic Awareness naturally leads into Alphabetic Principles.  Just as Phonemic Awareness is the basis for a child’s literacy development, Alphabetic Principles are the foundation for a child’s  writing system. Moreover, as children begin learning how to read and write letters, it becomes vitally important that they rely on the correct systematic instructional methods for learning Alphabetic Principles.
 
For example, children should be taught the alphabet sounds using consistent, phonetic repetitive approaches that utilize multisensory tools, rhyming, and alliteration.  This repetition should be spiral, repeating each day what a child has previously learned but always adding in a tad bit more knowledge with each lesson.  These alphabetic systematic phonics skills can, of course, be accomplished in a fun atmosphere especially when a 4WAY Phonics system of learning, which includes rhyme, rhythm, and alliteration, is sprinkled into each daily lesson time.
 
Unfortunately, some educational “experts” would have you believe that repetitive learning will step all over a child’s opportunities to also gain skills in listening, reading, writing, vocabulary, and comprehension.  This couldn’t be further from the truth! You see, “Practice Makes Perfect.”  This is true for any skill we learn, and practice involves repetition.  For example, let’s examine how a basketball team gains the skills necessary to function in an actual game. 
 
When an athletic team begins their season of training, the players do not jump right into scrimmage games.  They begin their practice season with repetitive drills.  Over and over again they practice individual sessions of running, maneuvering, shooting, dribbling, passing, and following patterns.  As the team’s skills improve more and more in each of these areas, eventually, the team players are able to blend together these abilities, execute them fluently within selected patterns of play, and execute those plays confidently within the framework of scheduled scrimmages.  Several scrimmages later, the team will play its first seasonal game.
 
Learning Alphabetic Principles follows this same logic.  A child does not begin learning Alphabetic Principles by reading whole words.  A child practices recognizing letters and their sounds through repeat drillwork, gradually adding in blending, moving from two letter blends into three-letter words, practicing basic sentence patterns and eventually reading complete sentences.  What’s more, those complete sentences also have limitations, for they should be carefully selected sentences, sentences that are part of a correct linguistic system of phonics, sentences made up of only letter sounds and blends that the child has previously mastered
 
To jump into reading without the necessary repetitive practice sessions would be like a basketball team jumping into an actual game without first mastering running, maneuvering, shooting, dribbling, passing, and following patterns.  To jump into the game too soon would be a disaster!

The Candy 4WAY Systematic Phonics Program covers all the sounds in the Alphabetic System using a FUN 4WAY Phonics Approach.

In addition, beginning with the Level 2 Phonics Lessons, Candy 4WAY Phonics  gives the student a sequenced Candy Story Reader following after every five daily 4WAY Phonics lessons.  Each Candy Story Reader contains only those words with sounds that the child has already mastered up to that given point.  This is crucial because just like a basketball team who knows that the skills they are learning in their daily periods of running, maneuvering, shooting, dribbling, passing, and following patterns are enabling them to play in an actual game, children need to know that the skills they are learning in their daily phonics lessons are enabling them to read actual stories. 

Turning a child into a fantastic phonetic reader begins by supplying him with early phonemic awareness skills and give way to Alphabetic Principles.  This is what the folks at Candy 4WAY Phonics are all about:  providing EXCELLENT and AFFORDABLE  phonics/reading tools (less than $10) for today’s parents and teachers.

Check us out:   www.candy4wayphonics.com

Please, don’t forget to read the TRUE STORY of a little girl named Candy who struggled in reading.

Sincerely, Carol Kay, President
Candy 4WAY Phonics 

 

Phonemic Awareness – Helping a Child Grow in Early Reading Skills

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Phonemic Awareness – Helping a Child Grow in Early Reading Skills

There are FIVE BIG IDEAS involved in learning to read. 

These FIVE BIG IDEAS are: 

Phonemic Awareness
Alphabetic Principle
Accuracy/Fluency with text
Vocabulary
Comprehension.

This Article on Phonics will discuss the first of THE BIG FIVE — Phonemic Awareness.    

 

PHONEMIC AWARENESS

According to the National Reading Panel, Phonemic Awareness is the basis for a child’s literacy development and is one of the best indicators of whether a child will be a successful reader in the early elementary grades.  

Phonemic awareness can be developed by first, providing a language-rich preschool environment and second, through explicit and systematic phonemic instruction which builds upon a child’s ability to grow in phonemic awareness (the ability to manipulate the spoken word).

Phonemic awareness is multi-faceted.  There are four specific skills for children to gain in order for a child to grow in phonemic awareness:

1)  Rhyming and alliteration
2)  Segmenting letter sounds
3)  Learning individual letter sounds
4)  Blending letter sounds together

Let’s review these abilities one at time.

1) Rhyming and alliteration can be used to develop an awareness of the sounds of language. A parent or teacher can capture and direct a child’s ability to rhyme.

Here are some activities that can help to grow rhyming and alliterative skills:    

          *Matching pictures of objects that rhyme.

          *Read a rhyming book aloud stopping to point out the rhymes.

          *Play the Finish my Sentence Game.  Begin a sentence, but replace the last word with something that rhymes with the correct word, such as, “It’s cold outside.  I think I’ll put on my hat and boat.”  Have the child give you the correct word, “coat.”  Be prepared for wrong answers (that also might rhyme) for giggles,  and for silliness. 

          *Play The Clap or Snap Game. Say two words.  Ask the child to clap if the two words rhyme or snap his fingers if they do not rhyme.  This can also be played with musical instruments using various drums, bells, or shakers to replace the clapping and snapping.  Of course, when children make their own musical instruments it only adds to the fun. 

2)  Segmenting letter sounds requires a child to manipulate a spoken word by dividing (segmenting) it into its component sounds.   This can be taught in game form by simply telling the child you are going to say a word ‘fast’ and asking the child to stretch out the word into its distinct sounds.   For example, the parent or teacher says the word:  “cat.”  The child drags that word out: “c—a—-t.”

3)  Learning individual letter sounds involves teaching a child to recognize printed letters and to repeat their individual sounds.  Learning individual letter sounds can be taught using rhyming alphabet charts, rhyming flashcards, and multisensory tools.  (NOTE:  These rhyming and multisensory tools are found in either The Candy 4WAY Phonics  Program INSTANT DOWNLOAD for just $9.97 or in The Candy 4WAY Phonics Preschool Package INSTANT DOWNLOAD for just $7.97.)

4)  Blending letter sounds together must always be taught by teaching a child to begin blending at the beginning of a word, thus teaching a correct left/right reading sequence.  This will involve an explicit, systematic phonics program designed to teach these sounds and blends step by step on a daily basis.   (NOTE:  These letter sounds are taught systematically, step by step, in either The Candy 4WAY Phonics  Program INSTANT DOWNLOAD for just $9.97 or in The Candy 4WAY Phonics Preschool Package INSTANT DOWNLOAD for just $7.97.)

Turning a child into a fantastic phonetic reader begins by supplying him with early phonemic awareness skills.  This is what the folks at Candy 4WAY Phonics  are all about:  providing EXCELLENT and AFFORDABLE phonics/reading tools for today’s parents and teachers. 

Check us out:  Candy 4WAY Phonics   

Please, don’t forget to read the TRUE STORY of a little girl named Candy who struggled in reading. 

Sincerely, Carol Kay, President

Candy 4WAY Phonics